How Piling Is Used to Build Foundations
Although it is used innovatively in construction, piling is a building method that developed in prehistoric times. Today, engineers use piles of concrete, steel, or timber to support various structures including bridge piers. If a soil is unstable, a pile greatly helps support a structure. If the ground is level, piles are used in conjunction with large structural loads.
Piles are inserted into the ground by the use of drivers. These machines normally include a high frame that features tools for elevating and dropping a pile-type hammer.
Indeed, piling is an important engineering activity as piles are frequently used to support structures that are erected on permafrost landscapes. Most piles, whether they are made of steel, concrete, or timber, are prefabricated before they are placed at a site. So, if driven piles are concrete in design, they are precast before they are positioned.
Types of Piles Used in Construction
Piles are featured as driven piles, cast in situ piles, or driven and cast in situ piles, depending on what construction technique is used. Driven piles for foundations may be constructed of steel, concrete, or timber. Again, these types of piles are prefabricated before they are placed. The piles are normally driven with a pile hammer, as previously noted.
When the piles are driven into a soil that is granular in composition, they displace a balanced amount of earth. This assists in soil compaction next to the sides of the piles and leads to soil densification. Soil densification and compaction enhance bearing capacity. You can learn more about piling and sheet piling by visiting such sites as Geobond.co.uk online.
Concrete Cast in Situ Piles
Cast in situ piles are made of concrete. These piles are made by drilling holes into the earth to a specific depth before adding concrete to the hole. Reinforcements are also employed in the concrete. Cast in situ piles are straight bored types of piling.
Driven and Cast in Situ Piles
Driven and cast in situ piles offer all the benefits of both driven and cast in situ piles. When these piles are installed, a steel shell is driven into the earth with the help of a mandrel that is inserted inside the shell. After the shell is driven, the mandrel is extracted and concrete is then poured inside the shell. A shell of this type can be designed with welded piles or reinforced corrugated sheet-type steel. Piles of this design are also known as shell piles.
Shell-less piles are developed by removing the shell whilst the concrete is placed. In both of these types of shell designs, the base is closed using a conical-type tip that can be unattached from the shell. By driving concrete from a shell, a large bulb may develop. In some situations, the tube is concreted and the shell is left intact. This type of piling is normally used in engineering constructions over water.
Piling is then used in deep foundations as a vertical support. A deep foundation conveys loads to the soil further down from the surface. Many of these foundations are used in the area of coastal construction and established to maintain the location of floating docks or stabilise piers.